We believe in creating a strong working relationship with our clients to determine their specific accounting and compliance needs.

Crossing State Lines? Know about Nexus

For many years, business owners had to ask themselves one question when it came to facing taxation in another state: Do we have “nexus”? This term indicates a business presence in a given state that’s substantial enough to trigger the state’s tax rules and obligations.

The question is still a valid one. If you’re considering operating your business in multiple states, or are already doing so, it’s worth reviewing the concept of nexus and its tax impact on your company. H&M can help you do that, but here is some basic information:

Common criteria

Precisely what activates nexus in a given state depends on that state’s chosen criteria. Triggers can vary but common criteria include:

  • Employing workers in the state,
  • Owning (or, in some cases, even leasing) property there,
  • Marketing your products or services in the state,
  • Maintaining a substantial amount of inventory there, and
  • Using a local telephone number.

Strategic moves

As with many tax issues, the totality of facts and circumstances will determine whether you have nexus in a state. So it’s important to make assumptions either way. The tax impact could be significant, and its specifics will vary widely depending on just how the state in question approaches taxation.

For starters, strongly consider conducting a nexus study. This is a systematic approach to identifying the out-of-state taxes to which your business activities may expose you. The results of a nexus study may not necessarily be negative. You may find that your company’s overall tax liability is lower in a neighboring state. In such cases, it may be advantageous to create nexus in that state by, say, setting up a small office there. If all goes well, you may be able to allocate some income to that state and lower your tax bill.

Taxation and profitability

The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence… so the saying goes. If profitability crosses state lines, please contact H&M for help projecting how setting up shop there might affect your tax liability.


$1 Billion in Tax Refunds Remain Unclaimed

According to the IRS, they are on the hunt for taxpayers who are entitled to their share of unclaimed tax refund dollars.  $1 billion is reportedly sitting in wait for those who have not filed an income tax return for 2013.  Those who have not filed for 2013 can be found across the country, but the IRS estimates that as many as 36,000 people in Ohio have unclaimed dollars waiting for them. Just how much money has gone unclaimed by Ohioans? The IRS shares this total amount: $34,547,000.

Taxpayers have three years to claim refunds for returns they have failed to file. If you still have not filed for 2013 and believe you are entitled to a refund, you must file a return for that year by this year’s deadline, April 18, 2017. Should you not have your 2013 return postmarked by that date, those unclaimed funds become property of the U.S. Treasury Department. Something else to keep in mind- your 2013 unclaimed tax funds could still be held up if you have not filed returns for 2014 & 2015. The IRS warns that your refund dollars could be used to pay off funds owed to them or a state tax authority. Unpaid child support and federal debts could also change the amount you receive.

Contact us today with any questions you may have. We would be happy to help.



Holbrook & Manter Acquires Lewis Center, Ohio Accounting Firm


Holbrook & Manter, CPAs Professional Services Firm with offices in Columbus, Dublin, Marion and Marysville recently acquired The TLC Group, Ltd.

For over 20 years, The TLC Group, Ltd. built strong relationships with the businesses and individuals that relied on their expertise to perform various accounting services. As a part of this acquisition, Holbrook & Manter, CPAs is thrilled to welcome The TLC Group, Ltd. clients and team members to the H&M family.

Keith Copeland, owner of The TLC Group, Ltd. shares his thoughts about the acquisition, “My priority was to find a firm who shared our values of client service and a “family” feel while maintaining the ability to give our clients the high-touch, down-to-earth service that we are known for.  After discussions with a multitude of accounting professionals in the Columbus area, I felt confident that Holbrook & Manter, CPAs would be an outstanding fit.”

 H&M’s Managing Partner, Bradley Ridge shares, “We realized immediately that with Keith’s foundational beliefs in life and his passion for helping people that we could be very successful together.  The owners of family businesses that have been attracted to Keith and his family over the last two decades are precisely the type of clients that H&M has served and helped achieve their dreams through our almost 100 years of existence.  And also from our Firm’s growth initiatives, this acquisition adds to and compliments, our significant Columbus Metro presence.  We wish a warm welcome to the TLC clients and team members! ”

Holbrook & Manter, CPAs is a professional services firm specializing in family and closely held businesses. Since its origination in 1919, H&M has been dedicated to providing superior accounting, tax and management consulting advice to both businesses and individuals. H&M provides cost effective, high quality technical service combined with sound personal attention. They are able to serve clients in virtually all areas of business, including those that require specialized expertise.

 H&M is a member of Allinial Global, an association of legally independent accounting and consulting firms who share education, marketing resources and technical knowledge in a wide range of industries. Please visit the following sites to learn more about our service offerings and areas of expertise:




For press inquiries, please contact:

Molly Pensyl, Business Development Manager

614.516.0040 or MPensyl@HolbrookManter.com







Beware of the “Kiddie Tax”

Making gifts to children and grandchildren is a strategy sometimes used to reduce taxes. Doing so may shift some of your income into a lower tax bracket and remove assets from your taxable estate. But if you employ this strategy, beware of a hidden tax sometimes called the “kiddie tax.”

The kiddie tax isn’t a separate tax. Rather, it’s an income threshold above which a minor’s unearned income (interest, dividends and capital gains) is taxed at his or her parent’s marginal tax rate instead of the child’s rate.

Who’s a “kiddie”?

For kiddie tax purposes, a child is anyone under age 19 or any full-time college student under age 24. Previously, the kiddie tax applied only to children under age 14. But Congress increased the age limit to make it harder for parents and grandparents to reduce taxes by shifting income.

The first $1,050 of a child’s unearned income is tax-free and the next $1,050 is taxed at the child’s marginal rate. All unearned income above $2,100 is then taxed at the parent’s marginal rate, which could be as high as 39.6%.

Let’s assume you own stock that has appreciated by $10,000 and want to give this to your 16-year-old son. Assuming your son doesn’t have any other unearned income, only $2,100 of the taxable gain would be taxed at his marginal rate. The remaining $7,900 would be taxed at your marginal rate.

Are there strategies to avoid the tax?

There’s a possible way to skirt the kiddie tax, particularly if your child or grandchild is in college. If he or she earns income via a wage or salary that provides more than half of his or her support, he or she might not be treated as a dependent. Further, there may be some additional income tax benefits related to tuition, because your child may be able to claim a deduction or credit that you could not.

Another strategy (if you want to help pay your child’s or grandchild’s college tuition) is to make tuition payments directly to the school instead of gifting assets to him or her. This payment wouldn’t be subject to gift tax — another benefit of this approach.

If your child has only unearned income totaling less than $10,500 (2016), you may be able to include this on your tax return and not file a separate return for him or her.

Complex details

The details involved in planning gifting strategies to avoid the kiddie tax can be complex. Contact us to discuss your particular situation. H&M is always standing by to help.

Knowing the Tax Challenges of Self-Employment

Today’s technology makes self-employment easier than ever. But if you work for yourself, you’ll face some distinctive challenges when it comes to your taxes. Here are some important steps to take:

Learn your liability. Self-employed individuals are liable for self-employment tax, which means they must pay both the employee and employer portions of FICA taxes. The good news is that you may deduct the employer portion of these taxes. Plus, you might be able to make significantly larger retirement contributions than you would as an employee.

However, you’ll likely be required to make quarterly estimated tax payments, because income taxes aren’t withheld from your self-employment income as they are from wages. If you fail to fully make these payments, you could face an unexpectedly high tax bill and underpayment penalties.

Distinguish what’s deductible. Under IRS rules, deductible business expenses for the self-employed must be “ordinary” and “necessary.” Basically, these are costs that are commonly incurred by businesses similar to yours and readily justifiable as needed to run your operations.

The tax agency stipulates, “An expense does not have to be indispensable to be considered necessary.” But pushing this grey area too far can trigger an audit. Common examples of deductible business expenses for the self-employed include licenses, accounting fees, equipment, supplies, legal expenses and business-related software.

Don’t forget your home office: You may deduct many direct expenses (such as business-only phone and data lines, as well as office supplies) and indirect expenses (such as real estate taxes and maintenance) associated with your home office. The tax break for indirect expenses is based on just how much of your home is used for business purposes, which you can generally determine by either measuring the square footage of your workspace as a percentage of the home’s total area or using a fraction based on the number of rooms.

The IRS typically looks at two questions to determine whether a taxpayer qualifies for the home office deduction:

1.      Is the specific area of the home that’s used for business purposes used only for business purposes, not personal ones?

2.      Is the space used regularly and continuously for business?

If you can answer in the affirmative to these questions, you’ll likely qualify. But please contact our H&M for specific assistance with the home office deduction or any other aspect of filing your taxes as a self-employed individual.

H&M’s Managing Partner Gives Radio Interview

With tax season now in full swing, H&M team members are answering the call to provide tax advice. Listeners of the New 92.9 WDLR & 1550 WDLR in Delaware county and True Oldies 98.7 and 1270 WQTT in Marysville got to hear H&M’s Brad Ridge share tax advice during the morning show today. He shared tips and information regarding what taxpayers can expect as they prepare to file.

Brad had a great time in studio…. thank you to the New 92.9 WDLR & 1550 WDLR in Delaware county and True Oldies 98.7 and 1270 WQTT in Marysville for having him.

Renting Property to your Business Could Backfire

If you own both property and a business, it just makes sense to lease the property to your business, right? Not always — this approach could be costly tax-wise, especially in light of the 3.8% net investment income tax (NIIT) now imposed on certain passive income. Fortunately, there may be a way to avoid these undesirable consequences.

The self-rental rule

The self-rental rule applies when you rent property to a business in which you and/or your spouse “materially participate.” The rule treats rental income as nonpassive but rental losses as passive. A taxpayer materially participates in a business if he or she works on a regular, continuous and substantial basis in its operation.

Unfortunately, the Internal Revenue Code generally prohibits taxpayers from deducting passive losses. A passive loss usually can offset only passive income, meaning income from a business in which you don’t materially participate, or rental real estate in which you don’t actively participate. “Active” participation is a less stringent standard than “material” participation. The active participation rules provide for limited circumstances under which you’ll be able to deduct passive losses; typically, though, absent passive income you may not claim current deductions for passive losses.

On top of that bad news, higher-income taxpayers generally will be subject to the NIIT on some or all of their unearned income, including rental income. This is in addition to — and calculated separately from — the taxpayers’ regular income tax or alternative minimum tax liability.

An alternative approach

You might be able to avoid the negative self-rental rule results by electing to “group” your business activities and rental activities for purposes of the passive loss rules — if both activities together constitute “an appropriate economic unit.”

The factors given the greatest weight when determining whether a group is an appropriate economic unit are:

  • Similarities and differences in types of businesses,
  • The extent of common control,
  • The extent of common ownership,
  • Geographical location, and
  • Interdependencies between or among the activities.

The interdependencies factor might consider, for example, the extent to which the activities purchase or sell goods to each other; involve products or services that are normally provided together; have the same customers or employees; or are accounted for with a single set of books and records.

Proceed with caution

If you qualify for the grouping election, you could offset your business’s nonpassive income with the otherwise passive rental losses. The rules for grouping are complicated, though, and include conditions beyond the appropriate economic unit requirement. H&M can help you chart the best course forward to minimize your taxes. Contact us today to get started.

New Staff Accountant Joins the H&M Team

The H&M team continues to grow with the addition of Andrew Roffe. Andrew joins us as a staff accountant.

Originally from Portsmouth, Ohio, Andrew is a graduate of Shawnee State University with a degree in accounting and marketing. Andrew states that learning the way a business runs and succeeds is what drew him to the accounting industry. Andrew is excited to work with H&M’s various clients and looks forward to providing them with excellent service as they work to meet their business goals.

Andrew currently resides in Grandview and enjoys running in his spare time. He also enjoys sports and going to car shows. Welcome to the firm, Andrew!

Software is the focus of Brian Ravencraft’s latest OCJ article

H&M’s Brian Ravencraft continues to write a monthly article for Ohio’s Country Journal. His “Farm and Finance” features cover various topics that apply to the financial side of agribusiness.

His latest article focuses on analytical software options for farmers. Read the article at the link below:


Have an idea for a future article for Brian? Send your ideas to him via email at BRavencraft@HolbrookManter.com

The Importance of Documenting Loans from a Tax Perspective

By: Mark Rhea, J.D.- Senior Assistant Accountant

If you have ever purchased a house, an automobile, furniture, or any household item that required financing, you know that there are many documents that must be signed when financing a purchase. Chances are you have signed documents with all kinds of terms related to principal amounts, interest rates, due dates and penalties. Although reading these documents can be somewhat terrifying, especially when reading the penalty provisions, these documents serve a purpose.

For businesses that make loans, these documents are the legal proof that establishes that they are entitled to money and how they are to be repaid. When a business goes to court to get a judgment against someone who has not paid them, they are expected to produce those documents to prove that they are owed money from a specific person. And the truth is we would not have it any other way. Fairness demands that if a business is demanding someone to pay them, they need to have written proof of it.

Businesses, big and small, also need these documents to prove to their accountants and to the IRS the existence of those loans for tax purposes. There are times when businesses may feel that there is no need for these documents because it’s an inconvenience or they know the party that they are lending to. This is a big mistake. Recently, in the case of John M. Sensenig, et ux. v. Commissioner, TC Memo 2017-1, Code Sec(s) 166; 385; 6662; 7491, the tax court found that lack of documentation of loans was a major factor in the denial of bad debt loss deductions by a taxpayer. As a result, not only did the taxpayer lose major deductions for bad debt losses due to the lack of documentation, but the taxpayer incurred significant accuracy-related penalties as well.

Just as a court would demand those documents in order for a business to be able to obtain a judgment against someone who owed them money, a tax court and the IRS will demand to see those same documents to prove that they are entitled to claim a bad debt loss deduction. Another wrinkle in the Sensenig case was that the loans made in that case were made between businesses that had common ownership. Due to the common ownership and the lack of formal documentation of the loans (among other things), those loans were not only not allowed to be claimed as bad debt losses but were treated as equity by the tax court, which has further significant accounting and tax consequences (not to mention headaches).

Loans that are made to shareholders, members or other related businesses receive a high level of scrutiny from the IRS and tax courts. Not only does documentation play a major role in determining whether the loan should be treated as a loan or as an equity contribution, but so do things such as creditworthiness, relationship of the lender and debtor, attempts to collect the debt if delinquent, capital structure of the debtor, and other factors related terms of the repayment of the loan.

Documentation of a loan is a critical first step in establishing that a loan should be treated as loan and nothing else such as a gift or equity.

At Holbrook & Manter CPAs, we can help guide you and your business through the steps to effectively document and preserve any loan interests you and your business may have.